The Somali Republic was founded in 1960 from territory contained in the colony of Italian Somaliland and the British Somaliland, in 1969, after nine years of democratic government, Somali military officer major general Mohamed Siad Barre seized power via a military coup and declared Somalia a socialist state.
Clans opposed to President Barre toppled the government, political parties and clans in 1991seized the capital city of Mogadishu, after deposing Barre, the warlord-led clan factions quickly descended into intense internecine battles, plunging Somalia into a violent civil war, the lawlessness helped compound a devastating famine as large numbers of refugees fled to neighboring countries
A lot of energy and attempts where pay towards Somalia peace process and reconciliation, in the period between (1991-2004) however peace talks resulted in the formation of a transitional federal government, or TFG, It was hoped that the TFG (transitional federal government) could be developed as a government of national unity. but it represented a narrow swathe of interests and clans in Somalia, and it has often been seen as lacking basic legitimacy and competence among much of the public, although President Abdullahi Yusuf did remarkable achievements.
Both president abdullahi yusuf ahmed and Sheikh sharif played key role for the restoration of peace and tranquility of the war torn- nation respectively
The Somalia conference in Brussels on 16 September 2013, the Federal Government of Somalia and its development partners endorsed an ambitious and ground-breaking New Deal Compact for Somalia, the Compact is a living document which is country-led and owned, it is structured around the five Peace- and State-building Goals (PSGs).
The New Deal outlines a contract between the Federal Government of Somalia and the Somali people, the real test of the New Deal process for Somalia, and the vision of the Compact are to build a sovereign, secure, democratic, united and federal Somalia.
The first: annual Ministerial High Level Partnership Forum where held in Copenhagen 19-20 November, co-chaired by HE Hassan Sheikh Mohamoud, the President of the Federal Government of Somalia, and the United Nations, this summit hosted by the Government of Denmark.
The second: Ministerial High-Level Partnership Forum was held in Mogadishu 29-30 July 2015, co-chaired by HE Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, President of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Somalia,Nicholas Kay.
Third and fourthly high lever partnership forum held also in Mogadishu to solve internal disputes among Somalis and promote reconciliation through negotiation ,the Somali national consultative forum technical team announced to choose either geographical representation method desired by JUBBALAND and PUNTLAND STATES or to select GALDUMUDUG and SOUTH WEST STATE preferred 4.5 system as the only two remaining agenda on the table of( SNCL),after first day of good speeches and arguments about the issue the discussion hasn’t produced any understanding or remarkable consensus because of the rival ideology related to the options ,international community brokered and tries to solve the case but fails to resume the forum ,the main aim of the high lever partnership forum is establish political platform and framework of Political vision, Security progress, financial accountability, transparency and partnership and the implementation of 2016 national election.
Atrocities of 4.5 discrimination based on minority clans
Discrimination against minorities originates from historically derived social attitudes and customary law, Political participation by minorities in government and parliament has been accepted in principle, a power sharing deal in the TFG in accordance with the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC) adopted in 2004 included minority representation since there is no other alternative system during that time, later the federal government and Somali law makers realized in garowe1 and garowe2 that this system was traditional and against Islamic religion and the rights of national citizens.
The minority societies believe that they are excluded from their equals and undermined their rights and privileges, these victimized societies claimed that human rights situation remains dire, Civilian casualties are frequent as a result of direct attacks, including inter-clan fighting, nepotism, revenge, military operations or excessive use of force, all of these atrocities remains concern and very sensitive issue of weak societies ,human rights and the Somali scholars are also regretting the inhumanity and bad behavior against their equals, huge number of the Somali people crossed oceans and perished oversees some of them fled to abroad for the sake of security and better life mostly vulnerable people like women and children specifically left out community claiming that they will not return back to their mother land, until justice and equality are restored ,so the 2016 national election based on 4.5system means let us again undermine the rights of Somali citizens, though many of Somali society are unable to access their rights.
The positive impacts of geographical representation system
1fuels national integration: Somalia is blessed with all qualities including common language, culture, geography ,religion, and also intermarriage, the challenge is to demonstrate that common goods from Somali identity outweighs and better clan identity’s benefits and how to deal with the misuse of clan oppression that negatively affected to every Somali citizen in the universe directly or indirectly, according to the last national consultative forum (NFC) technical team announcement of the national benchmarking process in 2016 electoral process is to choose either 4.5traditional and clan based system backed by GALMUDUG and SOUTH WEST STATE claiming that four clans are equal and one is half !! While the other idea is about equal representation from all Somali societies and states, this notion are supported by PUNTLAND and JUBBALAND states, this idea possess that looking back for the past bad days like violence, punishment, discrimination, injustices, division, and abuse of political power led by 4.5 clan system is shameful and racism ,whatever bribes, and silent majority atrocities that faces us in the past, today let us choose better future through geographical representation with legitimate means including equality, rule of law, transparency and justice for all Somalis to achieve equal opportunity, there is a some arguments that says distract representation system is not full of justice since the people from the distract can be corrupted either by federal member states(FMS) or by the people they represent to fulfill their interest, but the answer is that even if they are corrupted they are equal and justice and justice satisfies all citizens instead of discrimination ,there for geographical representation is more logical and possible option rather than traditional segregation .
Reasonable: the Somali national consultative forum (SNCF) suggested lastly two options which are geographical or distract representation and 4.5 or clan based system representation, each party said that their option is best and based on national interest but when the big discussion begins leaders began to sweet and frustrate against real questions, even if you ask yourself which one is logical for these two options you will fail to make a genuine and logical answer about how you discriminate two citizens living together, so distract representation is more logical than clan representation, further more international observers and international organizations realize that past mistakes is enough and it’s time to change the course towards new justice and equality.
Trust and equality: The tribal grievances, the ugly violence and the bitterly contested episode of killing and counter-killings after state collapse in 1991 have left a “dirty-mark” of irretrievable pain both physically and emotionally in every Somali’s conscious mind that severely affected minority societies, these broken connections made Somalia to divorce all sorts of moral values and depart from the true sense of original justice of geo-political representations among the tribes in Somalia, surely its time that the main dominant clans resign from their past oppressions and pave the way new era of justice and equality since strength and adherence plays key role for the principals of state building, by the way in order to enhance sustainable peace and development in the country, the leaders should care the feelings of their victimized citizens and agree justice and equality system to maintain momentum towards a secure, stable and developed Somalia.
THE NEGATIVE IMPACTs OF 4.5 OR CLAN REPRESENTATION SYSTEM
1:It is a backbone of poor leadership and lack of transparency: Leadership is undoubtedly one of the most ubiquitous potential stressors in the political platform specifically ruined countries perpetuated by civil wars and clan tit for tat problems ,so when you prefer to be role model or good image to others, you have to start yourself, means a leader elected by clan representatives (parliamentary) will struggle to satisfy clan interest ,of course it’s obvious that Somalis gossip mps they choose who pay most amount of cash mostly last moments of the election, since there is no political maturity of the current national leadership also there is no active government institutions and agencies that are accountable under the law because the leader reckoned injustice system (4.5) instead of accountability and rule of law ,as saying says invest your obligations to get your rights since my future depends on the leader I chose with free and fair election from all walks of society.
2:It is an injustice and inequality system: The 4.5 model apparently denies the constitutional and religion rights to be a full citizen among large number of Somali citizens and also undermines that people born the same and life the same ,beyond that discrimination the method also denies equalization of citizen and indirectly allows that the strong man and strong clan is the father of the forest and have more privileges both in the national resources or dignity issues, As a result of this man made catastrophic system, we have witnessed distrust to among Somalis and it clear and needs no asking that some of the ordinary Somalis feel excluded out . ‘Equal opportunity for all’ is one of the fundamental principles of any democratic system since the Somalis prefer federalism system, Unfortunately, 4.5 system deny some of the brightest people in Somalia from holding leadership positions in the country, and for that negative reason Somalia has lost an enormous intellectual capacity through 4.5 system
3: tested and regretted system: the 4.5 system was the main reference that Somalis use in the last decade and this system resulted discrimination and racism between Somali people without reasonable reference, so if we repeat again a failed method means we are failed people, so repeating a plan that you already failed the only result you expect is to fail again and again.
5: Lens and symbol of social segregation: First when you heard the word segregation what comes in your mind the answer is oppression, injustice, inequality, rudeness, lack of political maturity, left out of important and intellectual qualified citizens and spoon feeding ignorant and selfish people through discrimination which doesn’t have any reference and bases in both our religion, culture, possibility of a conscious mind ,so it’s a shame to Somalis leaders and scholars to claim 4.5 clan based system in the 21century.
The opportunist politician
It’s obvious that most of Somali political opportunists and corrupt leaders seek to divide Somalis into separate groups for their own interest ,they often create conflicts and clan friction, that has until now resulted in the loss of around one million lives of innocent people, these leaders they claim that they are protecting their people and serving nationwide duties but international standardized reports annually publishes misappropriation of resources and that personal interest overweighs national interest ,however the leaders and foreign interventions have their own hidden agenda to protect and promote their personal aggrandizements such as power, money or building political hegemony and military bases in Somalia so I recommend we Somalis and we unite for great Somalia.
Author:asad farah Mohamed (heelo)
Author and political analyst